**Research Question:**Are maternal expectations and at-home school involvement strategies related to a student's expectation that he or she will attend college?

In a previous assignment, I used ANOVA to test the relationship between ethnicity (categorical) and student's mean college expectations (quantitative) and found a significant relationship. Now, I want to see if maternal expectations (categorical) is a moderating factor. I ran a separate test for each of the 5 levels of maternal expectations.

I found that for categories 2 and 3 (indicate the second and third lowest level of maternal disappointment if the student did not attend college), the p-value was not significant, suggesting that there was no relationship between ethnicity and student expectations. However, for level 1, 4, and 5 the p-values were significant.

The graphs below show the mean student expectation, by maternal expectations, for each ethnicity. (1=biracial, 2=hispanic, 3=white, 4=black, 5=native american 6=asian). We can see that data tend to follow a similar pattern across maternal expectation levels, with asian students have the highest mean in each category. Interesting, however, at the lowest level of maternal expectations, white students have a relatively lower mean compared to black and biracial students, whereas they have the second highest mean expectation when maternal expectations are high (4 or 5).

This data suggests that maternal expectations moderate the association between ethnicity and college expectations.

The graphs below show the mean student expectation, by maternal expectations, for each ethnicity. (1=biracial, 2=hispanic, 3=white, 4=black, 5=native american 6=asian). We can see that data tend to follow a similar pattern across maternal expectation levels, with asian students have the highest mean in each category. Interesting, however, at the lowest level of maternal expectations, white students have a relatively lower mean compared to black and biracial students, whereas they have the second highest mean expectation when maternal expectations are high (4 or 5).

This data suggests that maternal expectations moderate the association between ethnicity and college expectations.

I'm also interested in the relationship between maternal at home involvement strategies and student expectations. It occurred to me that if a mother would not be disappointed if her child does not attend college, her engagement in at-home involvement strategies may actually have a negative effect on student's college expectations.

To test this, I ran an ANOVA test for each of the at home involvement strategies (talk about grades, work on a project, talk about school other) with maternal expectations as a moderator.

To test this, I ran an ANOVA test for each of the at home involvement strategies (talk about grades, work on a project, talk about school other) with maternal expectations as a moderator.

I did not find that at-home maternal involvement negative effect on student expectations at the lowest level of maternal expectations. In fact, the p-value for level 1 and 2 for 2 strategies (mom talked grades and mom talked school other) was not significant. This could suggest that engaging in these at home involvement strategies is not correlated to an increase in student college expectations when maternal expectations are low.

On the other hand, the p-value for level 1 and 2 was significant for the last at home involvement strategy, helping with a school project. For both levels, it corresponded to a higher mean college expectation (3.1 and 3.5 for level 1, 3.4 and 3.9 for level 2). This might suggest that working on a school project is correlated to a higher college expectation for students, even when the maternal college expectations are low. However, other potential contributing factors need to be considered before causation can be declared.

On the other hand, the p-value for level 1 and 2 was significant for the last at home involvement strategy, helping with a school project. For both levels, it corresponded to a higher mean college expectation (3.1 and 3.5 for level 1, 3.4 and 3.9 for level 2). This might suggest that working on a school project is correlated to a higher college expectation for students, even when the maternal college expectations are low. However, other potential contributing factors need to be considered before causation can be declared.